Photographers have four main considerations for light:
- Quantity - how much light (bright, dim, faint, etc)
- Quality - soft light or a harsh hard light giving crisp dark shadows
- Direction - where is the light coming from?
- Colour - the colour of 'hue' of the light
White balance is a control/system for adjusting the colour balance. Most cameras have a white balance function, the difference settings include:
- Auto white balance
- Bright, sunny day (daylight) - warm tones
- Cloudy - warm tones
- Shade - warm tones
- Tungsten - cool tones
- Fluorescent - warm 'red' tones
- Flash - warm tones
|I took this photo using the 'Bright, sunny day' white balance on my camera. I chose to use this white balance because it gave the image a warm tone and enhanced the whiteness of the old-fashioned furniture. The structure of the photo is quite delicate and the scenery behind the furniture is a lot darker to help make the main focus of the photograph be the key point.|
|To take this photo, put the Flash on auto so that it would capture more detail. This photo was taken very early in the morning so it was still quite dark outside, that made me want to take the picture because using a flash would make the contrast of the photo dark in the background and brighter for the focus. Also, to create the element of depth of field, i focused on a part of the door handle and then zoomed out so the rest was not in focus. I think this makes a good effect on the image.|
The term 'composition' means the arrange of elements in a shot which make it interesting to look at.
The Rule of Thirds is a way to balance the picture and give you interesting shots. The points where the lines cross each other are the strongest focal points. The lines themselves are the second strongest focal points. The theory of the Rule of Thirds is if you place the interesting points of your shot at the points where the lines cross or along the lines themselves - your photo becomes more balanced and interesting.
|This photo uses the rule of thirds by the main focus being my guinea pig in the center of the picture where the grid lines (focal lines) would cross. For this photo, i used the 'creative auto' setting on my camera and chose 'warm', (flash was also applied), by doing this it created a better blur in the background and make the colours stand out more.|
The Rule of Even and Odd
An even number of 'things' in an image can sometimes create a feeling of tension or a slightly un-natural look, while an odd number of 'things' can often create a feeling of harmony or balance
The Rule of Triangles
Triangles have 3 sides and tend to form stable, solid looking compositions.
|I took this photo as an example of The Rule of Triangles as it shows the formation and structure clearly. The different heights of all 3 girls show the outline of the 'triangle' with the tallest being in the middle. This balances out the image.|
Rule of Space
Negative space is the space around and between the subjects of an image. Filling up an image with information and detail can often create confusion and look messy. Using 'negative space' can be dramatic and very effective.
|I really like this photo for the use of negative space because it's a clear blue sky in the background and everything is in focus. The stones were in the photo at the bottom so i cropped them out to make it more simple. Also, the colours don't clash.|
Symmetry is a way to balance an image. It can often create a bigger imae when used in a confined space which is very effective.
|I did not use flash to take this photo because otherwise there would have been a dark shadow and that would not be symmetrical.|
Depth of Field
Depth of Field is the difference between the nearest and the furthest objects that give an image judged to be in focus in a camera. There are 3 things which can change the depth of field:
- the aperture
- the focal length of lens used
- how near the subject focused on is to the camera
|To take this photo, i used the 'Daylight' white balance setting to create the depth of field and brightness of the photo.|
Portrait photography is used to capture a persons likeness. The main focus is the face and eyes and can be taken of both groups and individuals.
Digital photography is not as hazardous as film photography as there is no need to handle chemicals in a darkroom. However, it is not without its hazards. Here is a table to explain a few of the hazards and solutions for health ans safety in photography.
Hazard - Solution
Wires/poles - Make sure the wires are taped to the floor to prevent tripping over them
Backdrop screen - Be aware and sensible with the backdrop screen as it could be a tripping hazard
Bright lights - Don't look directly at the bulb because it'll hurt and damage your eye sight
Studio lighting includes 4 different pieces of equipment:
- Key Light - the main source of light
- Fill Light - fills the shadows created by the key light
- Hair Light - illuminate the hair to make it look more 3D
- Umbrella - Diffusing light (white) & Reflecting/bouncing light (black)
Photoshop is the digital photographers 'darkroom'. It gives you a world of possibilities with your images. From making minor adjustments with contrast or cropping to creating dramatic colour enhancements, it has become a valuable piece of software for media organisations across the world.
(cropping - changing colour, adjusting levels - colour balance)